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Friday, February 19, 2016

Prophecy in the Church: Part 1 of "Preparing for Revival"


Preparing for Revival, Part I
What Spirit-filled pastors and leaders need to know about prophecy in the church.

For several years I regularly attended a local Pentecostal church. The pastor believed in all of the gifts of the Spirit and often prayed in tongues during the music ministry. However, on the rare occasions that anyone in the congregation prayed aloud in tongues or prophesied, he tensed up, and had an unhappy look on his face. It was as if this was an unnecessary intrusion into the service. He never encouraged that type of activity. In theory he should have welcomed such lay participation in the gifts. But like many Pentecostal and Charismatic pastors, he did not really have the knowledge or training to handle the public manifestations of the gifts of the Spirit.


In vising multiple other Pentecostal congregation I have notice the same situation – pastors are theoretically for the active gifts of the Spirit, but not publicly friendly or encouraging to their manifestations. Mostly, they are satisfied with the traditional Evangelical worship pattern of music, sermon, and altar call – with perhaps enthusiastic clapping, rising of hands, and healing ministry time. This is in spite of the fact that Paul urges the gifts of the Spirit to be used in all Christian worship services:

What then shall we say, brothers and sisters? When you come together, each of you has a hymn, or a word of instruction, a revelation, a tongue or an interpretation. Everything must be done so that the church may be built up. If anyone speaks in a tongue, two—or at the most three—should speak, one at a time, and someone must interpret. If there is no interpreter, the speaker should keep quiet in the church and speak to himself and to God. Two or three prophets should speak, and the others should weigh carefully what is said.  And if a revelation comes to someone who is sitting down, the first speaker should stop. (1Cor 14:26-29, NIV)

This is surely one of the most neglected passages of Paul’s letters. As I have pointed out in my recent book, this disobedience/neglect is mostly due to the fact that by the time Paul’s letters were accepted as canonical most Christians had discontinued the use of tongues and prophecy. Thus these verses just did not make sense.[1] From the Third Century on, when the classical liturgies of the Church developed, Paul’s order of worship was ignored, not out of malice or in conspiracy, but simply that few people could make sense of what Paul was saying. Not until the recovery of the tongues and the other word gifts of the Spirit in Pentecostalism at the cusp of the Twentieth Century would the Pauline passages of 1 Cor 12 and 14 be comprehensible.

I believe that many Spirit-filled pastor’s unease at the public manifestations of the gifts of the Spirit stems from legitimate fears, especially a fear of the gift of prophecy. There is the real possibility that the prophetic utterance (either direct or as interpretation of tongues) may be contaminated with falsehood and doctrinal or moral error.  This is a valid concern, as Spirit-filled movement from the earliest times to the present have had incidents, sometimes overwhelming, of false prophecies that were not discerned or corrected.[2] 

Take for instance a revival that took place among several Holiness congregations in Corsicana County, Texas, in the 1870s. This revival began with a burst of worship and enthusiasm which included tongues. Significantly, the leadership understood that the gifts of the Spirit described in 1 Cor. 12 -14 were for the present. Unfortunately the leaders were inexperienced in prophecy and its discernment (of course, there were no mentors or literature to help them) and drifted into false prophecy.  Some prophetic utterances included the message that a person baptized with the Spirit would be regenerated physically to the point of being able to live a thousand years.  But strangely enough, some in the congregation continued dying. The revival disintegrated as local prophets urged their followers to sell all and await Jesus’ return in 1875. Jesus didn’t make it, and the only thing achieved by the revival was the discrediting of future Pentecostal efforts in the area.[3] 

Most Pentecostal pastors can probably tell of some prayer group or individual injured by non-discerned prophetic utterance. I had personal experience with one such incident early on in my charismatic Christian life. My wife Carolyn and I belonged to one of the finest and most influential Pentecostal/charismatic churches in the Atlanta area. There Carolyn joined a small, predominantly woman’s bible study and healing group. The leader of the group prophesied that the group was in danger of being destroyed by “a man who would sow dissension,” i.e. me. They asked me to leave. The prophetic utterance was bogus, and most likely the product some unhealed past hurt of the group leader. We both left at that point, and the group itself did not last long after that. All of which is to say that false prophecy has been and will continue to be a challenge to any Spirit-filled congregation.

Then the issue arises, why not just scrap prophecy and tongues to avoid these problems?  In fact, cessstionists often do make this argument. They usually exaggerate and say that all modern prophecy is unnecessary, bogus and harmful and thus unrelated the New Testament prophecy.

There are several reasons why we must reject this extreme view. The most important is that Paul mandated it, and we should obey it. Secondly, there are many instances when contemporary prophecy has been not only encouraging and supportive, as its main New Testament function (1 Cor 14:31) but even life-saving. One of the most famous examples of the latter is cited by Demos Shakarian, the founder of the Full Gospel Business Men Fellowship International. In his book, The Happiest People on Earth. Shakarian related that his family came to America from Armenia during the 1900s. This was because a prophet in their community continuously warned the people of grave impending danger and urged them to leave and go to America. Many did, but many also did not. The prophet’s warning became tragically true when the Turks began the Armenian genocide of 1916. [4] Those who obeyed the prophetic warning lived, and most who did not perished.


Many Pentecostal and charismatic pastors can relate stories of valid prophetic warnings, discernments and encouragements. Let me cite another personal instance. Back in 1999 many businesses and churches were busy preparing for the oncoming “Y2K disaster,” a supposed mass foul-up of all computers because they had not been adequately programmed to take into account the new century. Carolyn and I were on the Church Y2K committee at our Episcopal church, and we coordinated an expanded pantry and other emergency supplies, etc.  We went to a nearby Pentecostal church to further coordinate for the possible problems and relief efforts and the pastor adamantly told us we were wasting our time, and that the Lord assured him there would be no problems. We thought him arrogant and foolishly imprudent. But he had indeed heard from the Lord correctly – a lesson to us on discernment.



Years later, in a small Pentecostal church which I pastored we had multiple incidents of valid and encouraging prophetic utterances.[5]  That church had a mature and discerning small group leadership that understood both the danger of false prophecy and the benefits of prophetic communications with the Holy Spirit. In other words they understood the importance of discernment. That is, with the gift of discernment one can filter out the destructive instances of prophetic utterances and affirm the valid communications from the Holy Spirit.

Help for the pastor:

What is a pastor, who perhaps is new to the Pentecostal or charismatic movements, do to get and grow in discernment?  Most seminaries and bible colleges do well in teaching hermeneutics, church history preaching and administration, etc., but few teach anything about discernment, prophetic or otherwise. (Of course if you went to a mainline seminary or an Evangelical cessationsit one, prophetic discernment was not even considered.)

The important thing to understand about discernment is that it is a spiritual gift, but it is enhanced with biblical understanding, knowledge of Christian writings, and experience.  Discernment of spirits, the foundational spiritual gift, is named as one of the spiritual gifts in 1 Cor 12.  Thus it can be asked for in prayer and received as a gift.  This relationship between prayer/gifting and learning/experience is demonstrated in the life of one of the great saints of the American healing revival, Agnes Sanford.

Mrs. Sanford received the Baptism of the Holy Spirit back in 1953 when that was unheard of among mainline Christians. She and two other friends in the healing ministry had a lay over from a healing mission and were exhausted. They prayed for help and relief, and all received the guidance from the Lord to pray for the “Holy Ghost” with the laying on of hands. They did, two on one, two on one two on one, and each received an outburst of energy, joy and refreshment to continue in their ministry. Later, one of the three received the gift of tongues at a Pentecostal meeting and wrote Mrs. Sanford about it. She thought it was ridiculous and unnecessary, but agreed to pray about it. In their next get together she agreed with the other two to allow them to pray for tongues. She received that gift in a glorious outburst. She went home and ransacked her church library on the Holy Spirit. A bit later she providentially encountered another mainline Christian who had been a “closet” Pentecostal for years and was able to further instruct her on the meaning of 1 Cor 12-14.  She continued learning about and exercising tongues and the gifts of the Spirit throughout her life.[6]



Now, back to a Spirit-filled pastor who has little experience with the prophetic. Let me suggest that, like Agnes Sanford, he/she have several of their elders do a two on one, two on one, etc., for the specific purpose of receiving or strengthening the gift of discernment of spirits. This will help in establishing a discernment baseline. If the other elders also ask for and receive the gift discernment of spirits, they could help in the discernment and judgment of prophetic utterances (1 Cor 4 14:29). The participants can also pray and ask can also ask for auxiliary gifting, as for instance the wisdom and tact in parrying prophecies that are marginal or tainted with “flesh” or demonic elements.

We are now in era that is rich with readily available works on discernment. An interested pastor or lay leader perhaps should start with something from the greatest theologian America has produced, Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758). His preaching triggered a revival in his church in 1737 which produced some strange physical phenomenon, multiple conversions and a spiritually revived congregation. Later he witnessed the spread of the Great Awakening (1740-1743) under George Whitefield and others. The Great Awakening was a tremendous blessing to America, but it also including non-discerning and spiritually destructive evangelists. Edwards’ reflections on revival, the physical phenomenon of revival, and the discernment issues involved are classics. Perhaps the best way to start on his multiple writings on discernment is to read his short work Distinguishing Marks of a Work the Spirit of God, and then go to his final work on discernment, Religious Affections. Both works are readily available at various web sites for free download.[7]



Edwards’ writings are almost three hundred years old, and yet there is another stream of Christian discernment writings that is much older and at least equal, and in certain aspects superior to Edward’s work. It is the discernment literature of the Catholic mystical tradition. This immediately raises suspicions among my Evangelical/Pentecostal readers who would ask “Can anything good come out of Nazareth?” i.e. Rome. The short answer is, yes, much good.

Dr. Vinson Synan, dean of Pentecostal historians, and former Pentecostal pastor himself, would say amen to this. He was born into a Pentecostal family where he was taught that the Catholic Church was the “Hoar of Babylon” and anti-Christ, etc.  But later, on his way to a doctorate in Church history, he studies Medieval Catholic mysticism and discovered, much to his surprise, that many mystics had been baptized in the Holy Spirit via their long hours of prayer (Matt 11:12). They often exercised the gifts of the Spirit, although they used different vocabulary for this.[8]  In effect, Catholic spiritual directors were dealing for centuries with not only discerning true from false visions and prophetic utterances, but true and false manifestation of the gifts of the Spirit.

In any case, the summary and culmination of Catholic discernment literature is a book first published in 1904 in France. It was written by the Jesuit scholar, Fr. Augustine Poulain, and entitled The Graces of Interior Prayer.[9] This was a very large work. Most of it dealt with advice to spiritual directors on shepherding the mystic through various stages of their spiritual journey. The most important part for the contemporary Spirit-filled pastor or lay leader is section IV. This is where Fr. Poulain dealt with discerning true and false visions and prophecies. Section IV has been reprinted in a convent paperback form.[10] Another very excellent Catholic work on discernment, and clearly based on Poulain, is Fr. Volken’s, Visions, Revelations and the Church.[11]  Let me stress to my Pentecostal and charismatic brethren, that the Catholic literature on discernment is generally excellent, though sometimes marred by long digressions on Marian apparitions and other items specific to Catholic belief.



Thankfully, the Charismatic Renewal has seen the rise of specifically Pentecostal/charismatic books on discernment. Many are excellent and I would recommend two especially, not negating that there are many others out there that are also excellent. Mike Bicle’s succinct work, Growing in the Prophetic is written by one of the major figures of the charismatic prophetic movement, and shows great experience and wisdom.[12] (It may be downloaded as a pdf file for free HERE). A much larger work, and one that gives excellent coverage of the discernment issues of the Church from its earliest times, is Ernest Gentile’s, Your Sons and Daughters Shall Prophesy. Even for the busy pastor, it is well worth having and reading it in segments as time allows.[13] For a detailed review of Gentile's work go HERE. 

Accessing the rich discernment tradition of the Church is invaluable aid to every Spirit-filled pastor and leader. Let me cite a personal example. I was raised in a devote Roman Catholic home in the 1940s to the 1960s. I was educated in Catholic Schools all thought to a history degree from Fordham University. But this was pre-Charismatic Catholicism, and I never saw a miracle or miraculous healing. Like many in my generation, I grew suspicious of the “rumors” of miracles via the pious saint’s tales of old and eventually drifted into atheism. After almost a decade of atheism I fell into the New Age movement and discovered the spiritual world was real and phenomenon rich. 

Luckily, I remembered from my Catholic education that spiritual experiences and phenomenon can come from either the Kingdom of God or the Kingdom of Satan.  I began asking questions about the nature of the New Age spiritual phenomenon I was experiencing and seeing.  Then I began reading the Catholic literature of discernment. I quickly realized that New Age spirituality was demonically laced.[14]  I returned to the Church via a Catholic Charismatic prayer group which initiated my life as a charismatic Christian (1975). I did however notice that in many of the meeting there was a lack a discernment in regard to prophecies and revelations - almost all were accepted. The lay leadership had been baptized in the Spirit, but not educated or read in the discernment tradition available, but mostly unknown, to them. I had a better grasp of discernment than many who were senior to me in experience and maturity simple because I was well read on the issue. I say this not for self-glorification, but specifically to point out that the literature of discernment is invaluable for every pastor who wishes to effectively lead a Spirit-filled congregation. That literature places the pastor or leader in contact with the riches and experiences of Spirit-filled believers from all of Church history.

My personal recommendation would be that pastors and church leaders read at least Edwards’s Distinguishing Marks of the Work of the Spirit of God, and then one work from both the Catholic and Pentecostal/charismatic authors.  (Hint: seminarians and student of religious studies could write a great paper or an MA thesis comparing the Catholic and Pentecostal literature on discernment.)

Preparing the congregation:

My experience is that a congregation should be taught about the prophetic and the word gifts of the Spirit, such as tongues and words of wisdom, before such utterances become widespread. This helps ensure that false prophecies are reduced to a minimum. Stress should be placed on the fact that in New Testament prophecy in the worship service is mostly about encouragement, not correction (1 Cor 14:26). Negative prophecies are possibly valid, but very often reflect the venting and opinions of the person rather than the true voice of the Holy Spirit. I insisted in my congregation that any negative prophetic utterance be cleared by the leadership for extra discernment. Further, I taught that Paul indicated that we prophecy “in part” (1 Cor 13:9) and therefore imperfectly, so that a discerning correction should not be taken as rejection.

The length of prophetic utterances is also a concern. Many persons who rightly sense a word from the Spirit do not know how to end it and go on, often “sanctifying’ what are their opinions or prejudices. I stressed that prophecy is related to the gift of “word of the wisdom” which comes often unexpectedly upon a believer, and invariably short.  Thus the lay persons in the congregation knew that their contribution and participation in the service (1 Cor 14: 26) in prophecy, shared psalms, songs and prayers would have to be brief. I made a joke of it (with a serious purpose) by using football signs for “time out,” etc.  No one was offended by this and all understood the need for it. I found during my first attempts at this years earlier that there was invariably a well-intentioned “prayer hog” who wanted to publically pray over every situation, and at great length. Everyone in my congregation knew that had to be brief as a courtesy to others, and the Holy Spirit could give a complete message with great brevity.

Another useful teaching point I discovered was to first encourage the congregation to “open up” to public sharing with a song or psalm. Most persons have watched “American Idol” and its imitators for years and are quite comfortable in this. Again, I stressed a brief song or psalm. It was a glorious period in our church which ended all too soon.[15]

Upon reviewing this posting I am reminded of contemporary TV ads for prescription medications – thirty seconds to present the product followed by a minuet of possible negative side effects, as in “The possible side effect are interior bleeding, constipation, etc.” Yes, having your church move and operate in the prophetic can have negative side effects. But operating in the prophetic is what God wants of the Church (1 Cor. 14:1), and with proper preparation can lead to an exciting, Spirit-filled congregation that will naturally draw many to its healing and prophetic services, and, most importantly, be in obedience with the God’s desire for the Church.








Suggested Readings (* items are particularly important).

Catholic Tradition:

Kelsey, Morton T. God, Dreams and Revelation. Minneapolis: Augsburg Press, 1974.

Knox, Ronald A. Enthusiasm: A Chapter in the History of Religion. Oxford: Clerandon Press, 1950.

Ponticu, Evagrius. On Various Evil Thoughts. This work is a classic of discernment, from the 4th                    Century. Can be accessed on the web at various sites.

Poulain, Augustine. The Graces of Interior Prayer: A Treatise of Mystical Theology. Trans.                              by Leonora L. Yorke Smith. London: Egan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co. 1910 (modern                        editions available online and in print) Full text online:  
             Paper copy may be purchased HERE

*–––––. Revelations and Visions. Trans. By Leonora L. Yorke Smith. New York Alba House, 1998.
            This is the critically important part IV of Poulain’s Graces of Interior Prayer.

Rahner, Karl. Visions and Prophecies. Trans. by Charles Henkey. New York: Herder & Herder,                      1963.

Synan, Vinson. “The Role of the Holy Spirit and the Gifts of the Spirit in the Mystical tradition,” 
             One in Christ. 10 No. 2 (1974) 193-202. Synan is the dean of Pentecostal scholars.

Volken. Laurent. Visions, Revelations and the Church. Trans. by Edward Gallager. New York; P. J.                Kennedy and Sons, 1963. May be purchased HERE

Pentecostal Charismatic tradition:

*Bickle, Mike. Growing in the Prophetic. Lake Mary: Creation House, 1996.

De Arteaga, William L.  Quenching the Spirit. Lake Mary: Creation House 1996.

*Gentile, Ernest B. Your Sons and Daughters Shall Prophesy. Foreward by C. Peter Wagner.                           Grand Rapids: Chosen Books, 1999.  A large (430pp) book on every aspect of the prophetic                 ministry from a Pentecostal perspective.

Hamon, Bill. Prophets and Personal Prophecy. Shippensburg, PA: Destiny Image, 1987.

*McDermott, Gerald R. “The Great Divider: Jonathan Edwards and American Culture,” Books     and             Culture, January/February 2010. Posted 2/04/2010.                                      http://www.booksandculture.com/search/results.html?x=0&y=0&query=Jonathan+Edw         ards%2C+great+divider

Ruthven, Jon. What’s Wrong With Protestant Theology? Tradition vs. Biblical Emphasis. Tulsa:                     Word and Spirit Press, 2013. A great treatise on why prophecy should be normal in the                         Church.

Synan, Vinson. “The Role of the Holy Spirit and the Gifts of the Spirit in the Mystical tradition,”                    One in Christ. 10 No. 2 (1974) 193-202. Synan is the dean of Pentecostal scholars.

Announcement:

The noted Pentecostal scholar Dr. Jon Ruthven wrote a very positive review of my latest book, Agnes Sanford and Her Companions: The Assault on Cessationism and the Coming of the Charismatic Renewal. You can access it HERE.




The book may be purchased on Amazon, either print or inexpensive Kindle HERE You can purchase the print version at a discount from the publisher HERE

My wife has written a funny and inspiring story of how she transited from a cessionist and Baptist to a Spirit-filled Believer. The book has many stories of our three decades of ministry together.  It may be purchased HERE.

Watching God Work: The Stuff of Miracles by [DeArteaga, Carolyn Koontz]



[1]William L. De Arteaga. Agnes Sanford and Her Companions: The Assault on Cessationism and the Coming of the Charismatic Renewal, Eugene: Wipf and Stock, 2015. Chapter 1.    
[2] On the Montanists and other Spirit-filled groups who had trouble with prophetic ministry see the classic work by Ronald A. Knox. Enthusiasm: A Chapter in the History of Religion. Oxford: Clerandon Press, 1950.
[3] On the rise and fall of this revival see: Barry W. Hamilton, “The Corsicana Enthusiasts: A Pre-Pentecostal Millennial Sect,” Wesleyan Theological Journal, 39 #1 (spring, 2004) 173-193.

[4] Demos Shakarian. The Happiest People on Earth (Old Tappen: Chosen Books, 1975) chapter 1.
[5] See my blog posting, “Can Church be done as Paul mandated?”  Posted, March 25, 2013.  http://anglicalpentecostal.blogspot.com/2013/03/can-church-be-done-as-paul-mandated-in.html

[6] Agnes Sanford, Sealed Orders (Plainsfield: Logos International, 1978) 216-218.   Described in detail in my work Agnes Sanford and Her Companions, 222-224.  You may purchase the book HERE
[7] I especially treat with the discernment issues of the Great Awakening, and the opening the failures in discernment gave to the pharisaical opposition to the revival in my work, Quenching the Spirit (Lake Mary: Creation House, 1996) chapters 2 and 3.
[8] Vinson Synan, “The Role of the Holy Spirit and the Gifts of the Spirit in the Mystical Tradition,” One in Christ 10, #2 (1974), 193-202     
[9]Augustine Poulain, The Graces of Interior Prayer: A Treatise of Mystical Theology. Trans. by Leonora L. Yorke Smith.  (London: Egan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co. 1910).   
[10] Augustine Poulain. Revelations and Visions. Trans. By Leonora L. Yorke Smith. New York Alba House, 1998 .But available from used book stores on the web such as abebooks.com
[11] Laurent Volken, Visions, Revelations and the Church. Trans. by Edward Gallager ( New York; P. J. Kennedy and Sons, 1963). This work is in print and may be purchased HERE
[12]Mike Bickle, Growing in the Prophetic (Lake Mary: Creation House, 1996).
[13] Ernest B.  Gentile, Your Sons and Daughters Shall Prophesy. Foreword by C. Peter Wagner. (Grand Rapids: Chosen Books, 1999). It may be purchased HERE
[14] The fruit of that stage in my life was the book Past life Vision (New York: Seabury, 1983) where I identified New Age beliefs as Gnostic and demonic.
[15] See note 5 above.

Tuesday, February 2, 2016

The Origins of Inner Healing

Note: This is a slightly modified version of a chapter from my new work on Agnes Sanford, Agnes Sanford and Her Companions, now available (see beleow)


Harry and the Healing of Memories

Healing a wounded Jewish soldier:

During the time that Agnes was writing The Healing Light, she began ministering to a soldier named Harry Goldsmith at Tilton Army Hospital.[1] While his physical healing was not quite as dramatic as that of the infantry officer who lost his stomach and had it restored, Harry's case pushed Mrs. Sanford beyond her confidence in the sacrament of confession to heal all emotional and spiritual injuries. By the time she had finished ministering to Harry she had not only made a convert, but had stumbled (or more properly, been guided by the Holy Spirit) into a new ministry, the ministry of healing of the memories – later renamed inner healing.[2]


Harry Goldsmith was born in Czechoslovakia of Jewish parents, but his mother was also an American citizen. In Czechoslovakia Harry suffered from considerable anti-Semitism at the hands of his Check neighbors (common in all of Eastern Europe at the time). When the Nazis took over that unfortunate country at the beginning of World War II, Harry's family suffered intensified humiliations and persecutions. After Pearl Harbor and American’s entry into the war, they and other American citizens were gathered up and exchanged for German nationals who were in the United States.
In America, Harry finished high school, and then entered the American Army (1944). Since he spoke perfect German he was sent to Europe where he served as an infantryman and translator in an armored reconnaissance unit. He was badly wounded by a German "screaming mimi" (rocket artillery) a week before the war ended. The shrapnel from the rocket caused severe wound in his thigh that not only shattered his femur and cut the nerves, but carried fragments of his uniform and earth into the wound and caused a severe infection. The doctors in England packed the wound with maggots and shipped him to the United States. Maggots may be disgusting to us, but they are effective in preventing gangrene, and currently being reintroduced into medical practice for this reason.[3] For Harry, his shipboard trip back to the United States was filled with maddening itching from the maggots.
By the time he arrived at Tilton Army Hospital in Fort Dix, New Jersey, he had developed severe osteomyelitis. Harry was placed in the “wet ward” for draining wounds, where in spite of the newly developed penicillin, many patients died of infections. When Mrs. Sanford first saw Harry on her rounds as a Gray Lady he was running a high fever and deeply depressed. The doctors were trying to reduce his infection with massive doses of penicillin in preparation for surgery and amputation of his leg up to the pelvic bone.
Agnes began talking to him about the healing powers of the body and how they could be increased. Agnes offered to lay hands on his wound to increase the healing power. Harry recounted later that he was at point where he would try anything “including burning chicken feathers under my bed.”[4] He allowed Agnes to lay hands on his leg. He was astonished by the warmth he felt, the first feeling his leg experienced since his wound. His fever quickly subsided. Mrs. Sanford prayed for him twice a week for several weeks with the usual Life magazine over her hands to disguise what she was doing. Both the draining of the wound and the infection cleared up quickly.
Although not religious, Harry was gifted with spiritual sensitivity and at times saw a light and felt a presence around Mrs. Sanford when she prayed for him.[5] He was also naturally inquisitive and Agnes slowly began to reveal to him just what she was doing. She first taught him to visualize the light of God making his leg perfect, and gave him a copy of Emmet Fox's The Sermon on the Mount. Soon Harry was not only praying for his own healing, but organizing the men in the wet ward into a prayer group whose members prayed for one another. Before Mrs. Sanford was dismissed from Tilton Hospital the wet ward had closed after everyone in it had been healed.
Within six weeks Harry's leg was completely healed. A three inch segment of smashed and missing femur bone had been restored. The surgeon responsible for Harry ordered three different sets of x-rays, as they could not believe what the plates revealed. Harry walked out of Tilton Hospital with a cane and returned to civilian life – entering City College of New York City via the GI Bill. However, his muscles were not as strong as he thought and in a game of soccer he fractured a bone in his injured leg and was back in Tilton. He discerned the accident was providential, and asked Agnes, who came to visit him what else she had not taught him? Agnes admitted that there was something very important:
I have not dared to tell you, because when I try to tell Jewish people they usually get upset, and I can understand why. It is embarrassing to me to say "I am a Christian" to a Jew, for a Christian means someone filled with the love of Christ and we have not acted toward Jews as though we were filled with the love of Christ... I still don't know how to tell you the rest, so I will give you the story of His life and maybe you will see it for yourself.[6]
Agnes brought Harry a Bible and told him to read the Gospel of John. He read it three times, and then, on his own, read the other Gospels. He discerned that the healing presence he had felt next to Mrs. Sanford was indeed Jesus. After he left the hospital, Ted Sanford baptized him and prepared him for confirmation into the Episcopal Church. 

Hurts From the Past:

As Harry returned to college and part-time jobs he found himself in alternating fits of depression or irrational outbursts of temper. On one occasion he threw a typewriter across the room over a minor annoyance. Harry shared his problem with Mrs. Sanford and she prayed every way she knew how for Harry's mental state. She prayed against his depression, and against his temper, etc., but nothing seemed to work. She described how she proceeded after her prayers failed:
Therefore I prayed for guidance: "Well then, Lord – How shall I pray?" It came to me first that the trouble was not in the conscious young man but in the little boy within him who had lived in the Gestapo regime.
"Yes, Lord," said I, "but how can I pray for that little boy who lived ten years ago?”[7]
Agnes was led to go into a process of intercessory prayer for Harry, or rather for the little Harry who had been so badly taunted, abused and psychologically scarred in Nazi Europe. The manner in which she prayed for Harry’s healing of the memories was unusual and important in understanding how the healing of memories ministry arose. At this period of her life Mrs. Sanford was influenced by an understanding of the Body of Christ and prayer intercession which was part of the heritage of Anglo-Catholic theology, that branch of the Anglican and Episcopal churches which draws heavily on Roman Catholic sources. This understanding was deeply sacramental and had its roots in the theology of classical Christian mysticism. Already in The Healing Light Mrs. Sanford had advocated a form of intercession for others, termed reparation, which she cites as ancient form of Christian prayer. She had learned of this from Episcopal nuns she befriended in a nearby convent. [8]
This prayer-intercession process which Mrs. Sanford used for Harry is described in detail in her novel Lost Shepherd.[9] For our purposes let us call it travail-prayer. The intercessor determines that he or she is willing to take on the hurts of a specific person. At the same time, the intercessor covenants with God about a time of prayer and fasting on behalf of this person's sins. This establishes a special spiritual relationship between the intercessor and the supplicant. A sign of this is when the intercessor begins to experience thoughts and emotions not his own, but reflecting the hurts, confusion and distress of the supplicant. To reach this stage of spirit melding and empathy usually takes days, at times weeks, of intercession in prayer and fasting. The intercessor then takes the sin burden and hurts of the person to the communion table and asks God to forgive his or hers sins, and be reconciled with that person through Jesus' blood and body.
In the case of Harry, when Agnes went into the travail-prayer she in fact experienced the boy Harry's emotions of hurt, insult and anger. When she completed her travail-prayer week and went to the Lord’s Supper Harry was immediately healed of his mood changes and irrational behavior. He sensed that Mrs. Sanford was behind it. He wrote her to find out what she did. Agnes explained that she had been interceding for him. Harry went on to earn a Ph.D. in psychology, and became a Spirit-filled teacher at Mrs. Sanford's pastoral teaching institute, the School of Pastoral Care (Chapter 18). For many years he practiced his own very effective mix of counseling and Christian healing prayer.
The theology of travail and burden bearing was given its modern articulation decades before by several Anglican laymen-theologians of whom C.S. Lewis was the most famous. A friend of Lewis', Charles Williams, brought this theology to its fullest expression. Mr. Williams' theology centered on the Apostle Paul's little noticed understanding that as members of the Body we are called to bear on another's burdens and suffering. This is especially clear in a passage in the letter to the Colossians, "Now I rejoice in my suffering for your sake, and in my flesh I complete what is lacking in Christ’s afflictions for the sake of the body, that is the church..."(Col 1:24).  Williams believed, as John Sandford rediscovered later and wrote about in his work, The Transformation of the Inner Man, that the essential spiritual duty of every Christian was to accept some form of suffering and inconvenience for the sake of others.[10] This was the central moral choice which was indicated if one wanted to accept fully being a Christian.  Williams called this "The way of  exchange."[11]
It is not known at what date Mrs. Sanford read Charles Williams' works, her library study contained several of his books at the time of her death.[12] It can be definitely established that from the beginning of her writing career she read many of the works of C.S. Lewis.[13] Lewis believed in his friend's theology of the "way of exchange." In fact, when Lewis' beloved wife was dying of bone cancer, he prayed that he might accept some of her disease and pain. She was relieved of suffering and Lewis mysteriously underwent a calcium loss in his leg.
Some Evangelical readers may be thinking all this is scripturally unwarranted. After all, Jesus said on the cross “It is finished” (John 19:30) and this has come to be understood that the entire work of redemption was done by Christ on that day and no further additions can be made. However scripture itself points to the validity of travail prayer. Paul states it very clearly and succinctly in Colossians. 1:24: "Now I rejoice in my suffering for your sake, and in my flesh I complete what is lacking in Christ's afflictions for the sake of the body, that is the church..."
It would be enlightening to compare Mrs. Sanford's experiences in travail-prayer with the experiences of Mr. Rees Howells, the great Christian intercessor of the Welsh Revival. His was also based on the understanding of the Christian’s call to burden bearing and co-suffering with Christ. Howells spent decades in fasting and prayer for the women of India for whom he felt a special burden.[14]
Mrs. Sanford came to understand that this classical form of travail-prayer was dangerous, as it could lead to serious confusion, and in later years discouraged it. She considered it imperative that this prayer not be done on a non-Christian, whose spirit may contain occult or idolatrous elements. More importantly, she discovered that although this travail-prayer was powerful and possible, it was not necessary. The same effect could be achieved with much less heroic effort.
Again, it was in a process of intercession for a Jewish woman, that she learned this lesson.[15] Like Harry, the woman had been persecuted under the Nazis and had seen most of her family murdered. She had become a Christian and had, at least consciously, forgiven her oppressors. Like Harry, she also suffered severe bouts of depression and anger. Mrs. Sanford went into the travail-prayer cycle for the woman. But well before Agnes believed it was complete, in fact only after asking that little Jewish girl within be comforted with Jesus' love, a complete healing was brought about. It was the Lord's way of educating Mrs. Sanford that His forgiveness is not dependent on specific and prolonged techniques of prayer and fasting.
In the last years of her life Mrs. Sanford declared that her original technique of travail-prayer should never be used.[16] This is probably to protect this technique from being used by immature Christians who wish to do heroic things as part of their spiritual life. The milder form of travail-prayer, taking the emotional hurts of a supplicant to the communion table, but without going into travel, was picked up and practiced especially among Catholic charismatic from the 1970s.[17]
In 1948, just after her initial travail-prayer intercessions, Agnes came to a new understanding of the relationship of the healing of memories to Christ’s atoning work. Emmet Fox (see Chapter 9 above) came to give a public lecture in Camden, New Jersey. His topic was Jesus' work as intercessor before the Father. The Rev. Fox believed that the reason Jesus shed bloody sweat at Gethsemane (an occasionally observed natural phenomenon) was not that Jesus was frightened of his coming crucifixion. Rather, as he prayed at the garden he looked into the "collective unconscious" (a Jungian term meaning “total memory”) of all of mankind and saw there all of the sins of hatred, selfishness, rejection and evil that mankind had committed or would commit. It was the horror of that vision-experience that caused the bloody sweating. As Jesus continued to pray he accepted the bitter cup of the grief and sorrows (Isaiah 53:4) that those sins had or would produce on to Himself .[18]
Agnes meditated on Dr. Fox's lecture and searched the scriptures. She came to the conclusion that Fox was correct. Jesus' activity in the garden made the healing of memories, possible, just as his flogging and physical blows made our physical healing possible (Isaiah 53:5). She incorporated this understanding into her talks and writings on the healing of memories, and the Fox theory was passed on to many of the early writers and ministers of inner healing.
Some may object to this division in the passion of Our Lord, which is not explicit in scripture. Certainly it is normative for a Christian to believe in the forgiveness of sins through the blood of Jesus without this particular understanding. We can only note that theology must be the servant of scripture, and if the Fox theory of Jesus' travail at Gethsemane helps us understand, or adds to our faith-expectancy about the reality of the ministry of forgiveness of sins, so much the better. In support of the Fox theory we would cite in the ninth chapter of the Letter of Hebrews. There the writer makes an equation statement “without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness.” We may safely assume that the bloody sweat shed by Jesus at Gethsemane was not an accident, but part of God’s providential provision for the forgiveness of sins. It certainly makes sense to associate Jesus mental anguish at the garden with mankind's mental suffering. It was also in the context of Jesus' redemptive work at Gethsemane that Mrs. Sanford came to her final correction of her travail-prayer belief. She understood that one did not have to suffer the confusion and pain of the other person, but rather only serve as connector between person and Jesus.[19]

Other Methods for the Healing of Memories

The change in the healing of memories ministry from that of intercession through the Lord’s Supper to other ways of prayer came in several stages. It happened at CFO camps and at the OSL and other healing missions that she did with increasing frequency after the release of The Healing Light. In these settings she had to deal with dozens of persons at a time. The first was the use of the laying on of hands on the head of the supplicant, just as that unnamed doctor had laid hands on Agnes about her nervousness at speaking engagements.
 I simply pray, usually with the laying on of hands, for the love of Christ to come into this one and forgive the sins and heal the sorrows of the past as well as the present- the little child who used to be, as well as the grown person who is now. I begin at the present and go back through the memories, mentioning every sin and every grievous incident that has been told me. Indeed, I go further back than this, and pray for the healing of those impressions of fear or anger that came upon the infant far beyond the reach of memory. I carry this prayer back to the time of birth and even before birth and pray for the restoration of the soul, for the healing of the soul - the psyche – of the real, original person.[20]
At times, as when people came to the parsonage specifically for healing prayer, she could do more than just lay hands and pray briefly. She described this counseling healing of memories methodology as: listening, questioning and praying. She would arrange for a period of time in which the person talked about his or her problem. While the counselee talked, Agnes prayed that God would lead the person to mention the root problem of their distress, which he or she often did immediately. If the counselee reported that they had a happy childhood, Agnes then asked, "When did you first become unhappy?" This was usually all that was needed to get to the root of the problem. If the person reported an unhappy childhood, she asked why they believe their childhood was unhappy. The answer to that question would again point to an unhealed spiritual root. Once the root problem was identified a prayer would be prayed that was concise and to the point of the sin or hurt of the past.[21]
It seems that from the very beginning Agnes integrated the use of visualization with prayers for the healing of memories. She had used this technique to bring persons to forgive others in the Healing Light. In her healing of memories/counseling session she would ask the counselee to imagine and invite Jesus into the hurtful memories. Sometimes, when the imaginative powers of the counselee were weak, she visualized Jesus healing the incident in her mind. In this way, like original form of long distance intercessory prayer that Agnes learned long before, she used her imagination to add to her mental or oral prayers. Mrs. Sanford did her own healing of memories on the little child within herself. As an eight year old her father was ill and little Agnes greatly feared for her fathers' life. Mrs. Sanford invited Jesus into her memory to comfort the little girl, which He did. To be doubly sure the trauma of the memory was banished she received communion for the "little" Agnes.[22]

A prayer mashal for the healing of memories:

For those occasions when Agnes was teaching at large CFO camps or healing missions and could do little individual counseling, she developed a group meditation/visualization which she would pray over her audience. It as a parable prayer, or as Prof. Glenn Clark had taught her, a mashal (Chapter 13). In this case it was for the cleansing and healing of memories of the audience.
Lord Jesus, I ask you to enter into this person who has need of your healing in the depths of the mind. I ask You to come, Lord as a careful housekeeper might come into a house that has long been closed and neglected. Open all the windows and let in the fresh wind of Your Spirit. Raise all the shades, that the sunlight of Your love may fill this house of the soul. Where there is sunlight there cannot be darkness. Therefore I rejoice that as the light of Your love now fills this mansion of the soul, all darkness shall flee away...
Go back, O Lord, through all the rooms of this memory-house. Open every closed door and look into every closet and bureau drawer and see if there be any dirty and broken things that are no longer needed in one's present life, and if so, o Lord, take them completely away. I give thanks, for this is the promise of the Scriptures: As far as the east is from the west, so far hath he removed our transgressions from us…
Follow the soul of this Your child all the way back to the hour of birth and heal the soul even of the pain and fear of being born into this darksome world. Restore in the soul that bright memory of your eternal being that is not exactly a memory, but which is rather an emanation, an unconscious infilling of the eternal radiance from which this one was born. And if even before birth the soul was shadowed by this human life and was darkened by fears or sorrows of the human parents, then I pray that even those memories or impressions may be healed, so that this one may be restored to Your original pattern...so that whatever Your purpose may be for its human pilgrimage, that purpose may be filled[23].
Mrs. Sanford was also careful to explain that the healing of memories is not a form of induced amnesia, but rather a prayer of forgiveness and transformation:
The memories will not be lost...but the emotional tone that surrounds them will be changed. Memories of old grief will no longer cause you grief. They will bring joy, for you will think, ‘How thankful I am that that is all gone away!' Memories of guilt will bring exceeding joy, for you will think, ‘Oh, how wonderful to be entirely free of that, so that it has nothing to do with me anymore!' Memories of resentment will be changed to tenderness, because the love of Christ will so fill and flood the heart that there will no longer be any cause of resentment, for even old bitter things have been changed to joy."[24]

A major name change:

In the 1970s Fr, Francis MacNutt, who would later become the lead healing theologian of the Catholic charismatic renewal, was ministering at a CFO camp with Mrs. Sanford. He began using the phrase “inner healing” for the healing of memories. It seems elderly persons were coming up to the healing lines believing that their failing memories and on-setting dementia would be restored with the “healing of memory” prayer.[25] Inner healing became the name that stuck, though Mrs. Sanford never liked it.
The healing of memories/inner healing is turning out to be, in view of its use throughout the world of Spirit-filled churches, one of the major healing prayer innovations of all time. It is the bringing into biblical fullness the church’s ministry of the forgiveness of sins. It completes the rite/ sacrament of confession. That is, the sacrament of confession brings to the cross of Christ the sin that a person commits (or omits). The healing of memories brings the forgiveness of sins to the other dimension of sin, the sins that are focused on us, the sinful acts we receive at the hands (and tongues) of others. These sins cannot be “confessed” because we are not responsible for them, yet they are sin structures that deeply affect us. As Agnes described in her book The Healing Gifts of the Spirit:
 The truth is that any wound to the soul so deep that it is not healed by our own self-searching and prayers is inevitably connected with a subconscious awareness of sin, either our own sins or grievous reactions to the sins of others. The therapy that heals these deep wounds could be called the forgiveness of sins or it could be called the healing of memories.[26]
Before the healing of memories was birthed, Christians knew that they had to forgive and pray for their enemies – a most basic and difficult commandment of Christianity (Matthew 5:44). Knowing that however, never developed into a systematic, repeatable ministry of how “sins-upon-us” poisons our emotions and reactions, and could be healed. The ministry of healing of memories/inner healing is the product of Mrs. Sanford’s willingness to listen to the Lord, and experiment with forms of prayer to achieve what was given to her as a revelation.

Inner Healing and the CFO Women:

By the late 1960s inner healing was being taught at the Schools of Pastor Care (Chapter 18 below), at Agnes’ many healing missions, but principally and consistently at CFOs. It was at the CFO, with its week to ten day summer programs where Agnes discipled several men and woman to do inner healing ministry. Most prominent among the first inner healing ministers were Ann White and Genevieve Parkhurst.[27] Mrs. Parkhurst was a particularly beautiful and dignified woman who held the attention of her audiences just by her presence. Her works on inner healing were particularly insightful, and among the best of the early works on inner healing, marred only by her use of Jungian vocabulary to explain the ministry.
This error was mostly Mrs. Sanford’s fault, as she did the same in several of her earlier writings. Mrs. Sanford was not a devotee of Professor Karl Jung’s writings. Rather, she absorbed Jungian vocabulary from the table talk of the many guests that came to her home to discuss spiritual healing with her. Jung’s writing were all the rage in the 1950s and 1960s among academicians, as it was the only branch of the psychoanalytic movement that recognized spiritual phenomenon. Only later were the dangers of Jungian psychology understood, especially in its confusion of archetypes for demonic influences and possession. Her son John went deeply into Jung and received a degree as a Jungian psychologist. In her later years Mrs. Sanford came to greatly regret that. She shared this to her spiritual son and disciple John Sandford (note the “d” in his name). She asked him to pray that her two boys, Fr. Morton Kelsey, her pastor in her later Californian home, and Christian writer and Episcopal priest, and her son John Sanford, be separated from Jungian influences.[28]
But the major CFO woman who put the inner healing ministry on the map of national and international consciousness was Mrs. Ruth Carter Stapleton (1929-1983). Raised a devout Southern Baptist, she came to a CFO in the mid-1960s.[29] Mrs. Stapleton met Agnes Sanford several times, and read her works, but was more directly mentored by the Rev. Tommy Tyson, a disciple of Rufus Moseley. Tyson was a Methodist Evangelist and frequent CFO speaker. Mrs. Stapleton’s first work was a devotional pamphlet which elaborated an earlier work by A. W. Tozer. The pamphlet, Power Through Release, was published by Glenn Clark’s Macalester Park Press.[30]
In 1971 Mrs. Stapleton’s brother, Jimmy Carter, became governor of Georgia, and, after his term expired in 1974, he began a presidential quest. By the time Mrs. Stapleton finished writing her first work on inner healing, governor Carter was in the midst of his election campaign. She chose to garner some publicity for the inner healing ministry by changing her name to “Carter Stapleton,” which she used for the rest of her life. Her work, The Gift of Inner Healing became a sensational best seller.[31]
Her books on inner healing were totally dependent on the works of Agnes Sanford, but Mrs. Sanford, who was already somewhat controversial, was never mentioned in them. Mrs. Carter Stapleton briefly mentioned using a mashal prayer within a prayer group, but Mrs. Sanford’s rich theology of forgiveness of sins was not discussed.[32] Rather the inner healing ministry was presented in a series of stories of personal distress and healings through visualizations in which Jesus intervenes in memories of the supplicants. It was all told simply and thankfully without Jungian vocabulary.
The Gift of Inner Healing was soon followed by Mrs. Carter Stapleton’s second major book, The Experience of Inner Healing.[33] The book did have extensive notes citing multiple Bible passages in order to counter the mounting Evangelical critiques that the ministry was “unbiblical.” That accusation continued to haunt the ministry, and John Sandford, in his Transformation of the Inner Man, specifically addressed this lack.[34] The highly critical work of Dave Hunt and other self-appointed anti-cult ministers understood inner haling as merely a ministry of visualization, not understanding the subtleties of Mrs. Sanford’s ministry and theology.[35]
In any case, by the late 1970s Ruth Carter Stapleton was perhaps the most well-known and photographed of the new charismatic leadership. Newsweek did a cover story on her authored by Kenneth Woodward entitled “Sister Ruth,” comparing her to the famous 1930s Pentecostal healing evangelist Aimee Semple MacPherson.[36] Inner healing had become the signature ministry of the new charismatic movement.
  
Announcement:

The noted Pentecostal scholar Dr. Jon Ruthven wrote a very positive review of my latest book, Agnes Sanford and Her Companions: The Assault on Cessationism and the Coming of the Charismatic Renewal. You can access it HERE.




The book may be purchased on Amazon, either print or inexpensive Kindle HERE You can purchase the print version at a discount from the publisher HERE

My wife has written a funny and inspiring story of how she transited from a cessionist and Baptist to a Spirit-filled Believer. The book has many stories of our three decades of ministry together.  It may be purchased HERE.

Watching God Work: The Stuff of Miracles by [DeArteaga, Carolyn Koontz]








[1] This account is based on an interview the author had with Harry Goldsmith, Ph.D., at his home in Tampa, FL, in April of 1983, as well as Mrs. Sanford's description of Dr. Goldsmith’s healing and evangelization which are found in Sealed Orders, 193-196, Behold Your God, 74-76, and her taped talks: "The Real Meaning,” and  "Healing of Memories."  Harry Goldsmith’s written description of his healing under Agnes’ ministry was given in his “Anatomy of a Healing.” Harry Goldsmith served as the model for the hero in Mrs. Sanford's first novel Oh, Watchman! Note that many of these tapes are being transcribed into the MP3 format and can be downloaded at the CFO audio library website: http://www.cfoclassicslibrary.org/
[2] It has been understood among persons who are informed on the issue that Mrs. Sanford was the first person to do inner healing prayer. She certainly was the first person to bring this to a repeatable ministry with a concurrent theology. However, as I was doing the last editing of this text, my friend and colleague in the healing ministry, Fr. Mark Pearson, of the Institute For Christian Renewal in New Hampshire, informed me that she was not the first to pray for inner healing. Two decades ago he was doing an advanced class on the Cappadocian Fathers, a group of influential Fourth Century theologians, at Oxford University. He noticed that one of the Fathers wrote about something identical to inner healing. Everyone in the class read the passage and agreed. However, he does not remember which of the Fathers or what specific work they were reading. I let this project of rediscovery to someone out there with a good command of Greek to do.
[3] Arnold, “Maggots Heal Wounds.”
[4] Interview of Dr. Harry Goldsmith by author, April 1983. Taped copy in author’s possession.
[5]The experience of sensing a physical light during healing is reported in other accounts in the literature of Christian healing. See for example, Kerin, The Living Touch, 28.
[6] Sanford, Behold Your God, 74-75.
[7] Sanford, Sealed Orders, 195-195. Contemporary readers often compare the insight she received from the Lord about the origins of Harry's problems with the work of W. Hugh Missildine. His book, Your Inner Child is now considered a classic of modern psychology. In it Dr. Missildine asserted that the inner child coexists in the adult not as a chaotic “Id” of Freudian psychoanalysis, but as an unfinished entity until adequately recognized and dealt with.  This is essentially what the Lord revealed to Mrs. Sanford about Harry. He had an injured "child" within his soul that needed ministry and comfort. Lest someone believe that the healing of memories was an imitation of psychological theory, let us remember that Harry’s case happened in 1946, and Dr. Missildine wrote his work decades later.
[8] Sanford, Healing Light, 136-37.
[9] Sanford, Lost Shepherd, (1953).
[10] Sandford, The Transformation.
[11] Williams' theology was written as fiction, much like C.S. Lewis'. Unlike Lewis, whose novels can be read by children, Williams' are sophisticated and nuanced. It may be best to first encounter Williams' theology by way of McDermott's, Romantic Love, especially chapter 8, "The Way of Exchange."
[12]From a note on Virginia Sanford's annotations to the first draft of this chapter. In author’s possession.
[13] Sanford, Behold God, 88
[14] See Grubbs, Rees Howells. Agnes’ disciple in inner healing, Leanne Payne, found in her ministry that she had to do healing prayer on several persons who did this form of travail prayer, as they were often seriously confused and troubled. See Payne’s, Heaven’s Calling, 194. 
[15] Sanford, Behold God, 110-114, for a description of this second case of the healing of memories. Mrs. Sanford, like Carrie Ten Boom, had a special love for Jews and ministered to them often. On this see also Sanford’s taped talk, "Redemption of Our.”
[16]From the author’s interview with Mrs. Barbara Shlemon, May 20, 1984, Atlanta, at St. Phillip’s Cathedral. Mrs. Shlemon, a frequent CFO and OSL speaker and disciple of Mrs. Sanford, was among the first Catholic laypersons to come into the Charismatic renewal, and ministered often with Mrs. Sanford. She, published several works on inner healing. See her, Healing Prayer, and Hidden Self.
[17] Powell, "Holy Communion." Powell shows that this form of prayer intercession is effective for patients with schizophrenia.  My wife and I have used this communion intercession often for the more normal pastoral needs that arise in our church and counseling. 
[18] Sanford, Sealed Orders, 189. Explained fully in Sanford, Behold God, chapter 8, “The Current of God’s Love on Calvary,” 99-114.
[19] Sanford, Sealed Orders, 95.
[20] Sanford, Healing Gifts, 133-134.
[21] Ibid.,131-134. 
[22] Ibid., 117-118. Some time ago my wife and I counseled and did repeated inner healing on a woman who had been severely sexually abused by her father. She improved greatly, yet, the clouds of depression and insecurity were not completely dispersed until we took her to church one Sunday and all three of us received communion for the abused little girl within her.
[23] Ibid.,120-123.
[24] Sanford, Behold Your God, 69.
[25] Conversation with Dr. Francis MacNutt at a North Carolina “Disciplined Order of Christ” conference in 1982.
[26] Sanford, Healing Gifts,126.
[27] White, Healing Adventure and Parkhurst, Glorious Victory.
[28] From conversations with John Sandford, at the CFO camp in Leesburg, Florida, January 18, 1986.
[29] Stapleton, “First CFO.”
[30] Stapleton, Power Through Release. She clearly credits Tozer’s work as her inspiration, p. 6.
[31] Stapleton, Gift of Inner Healing.
[32] Ibid., 24.
[33] Stapleton, Experience of Inner.
[34] Sandford, The Transformation.
[35] Hunt, Seduction of Christianity.  
[36] July 17, 1978.